“How is porcelain made?” asks Kaia (8)

Thanks team.There has already been a mention of kaolinite in a question on minerals, see this site.  My team are correct, the difference between ordinary clay pots and porcelain pots is the temperature at which the clay is ‘fired’.

The ‘firing’ process  is linked to the temperature of the kiln.

So a porcelain pot is a pot heated up to much higher temperature than that of other pots. This causes the clay to form a new mineral called Mullite.

Braiden (9) asks “What makes a diamond so hard?.

Braiden, my question (before I turn you over to my team) is how do you detect ‘hardness’? Can you create an order of hardness with some common materials?
Lets say:

wood (balsa)
wood (oak)
plastic object
bath sponge
china(cups and saucers)
glass
concrete pathway
cardboard
metal fork
coin
rock (sandstone)
piece of coal
pencil rubber 
I think that would be an interesting experiment to carry out. You will have to make sure it is a fair test (science is all about fair tests …and questions …and hypotheses and experiment). How will you carry out the experiment? ( a hypothesis is an idea – “I think soft things will float, hard things will sink”)

Now over to my team.

Graphite has a layered structure with weak forces between the layers, This is a weaker structure than the close bonding of the diamond. The carbon atoms like the tetrahedral arrangement of the bonds with other carbon atoms. It is a very strong force.

Hope that makes some sense. If you have questions about the explanation please ask them. If you want to see my ‘hardness’ list go to Science Master Special-Hardness Results

Lexi (9) and Jaeda (9) and Cadence(8) asked a question on “Minerals”

Lexi, a nice question, a lot of elements are found within the form of a mineral. I shall let my team introduce the answer to this question.

Jaeda. You asked a question on crystals and why are they so expensive. This is not  a science question however most crystals are minerals so this question is also addressed to you.

Cadence . You asked about talc, which is a mineral.

All minerals are found in rocks. It is thought that some are created by the magma (lava) from volcanoes while other were formed in the Earth’s mantle and have reached the surface through earthquake activity. The minerals created from volcanoes have smaller crystals (probably cooled faster), minerals created more slowly in the mantle consist of bigger crystals. All of the minerals are created by a chemical reaction.

A lot of minerals are mined, dug from underground shafts. A lot of minerals have the elements Silicon and  Oxygen in them.Talc is a mineral of the elements Magnesium, Silicon and Oxygen and is mainly found in Japan and the United States.

Have fun and watch this video on minerals.

Thank you Lexi, Jaeda and Cadence. If you want to comment on this post please feel free to do so in the Reply box below. Or why not ask another question.

William (9), Erika (10) and Alissa (10) asked some questions on fossil fuels

Erika asked “Why are fossil fuels so expensive?”

Alissa asked “How were fossil fuels found?”

William asked “how is oil made?”

I asked my friends to to talk about this however firstly I would like to talk about what makes a good science question.

science question is a question that may lead to observations, an idea and help us in answering (or figuring out) the reason for some observation and the question.

Erika’s question is a good economics question.

Miners (those who look for oil and coal) have a variety of clever tools to help them find the fossil fuel. For example they can use ‘sniffers’. The  sniffers can detect small amounts of oil vapour which might find their way out of the rocks that are hiding the oil. They also use seismic detection methods. Seismic waves were used to investigate the Earths core however the oil explorers do not use earthquakes to create the seismic wave – they use special guns or explosives. The shock waves (seismic waves) travel through the rock and at some point they are reflected back and return to the surface. The waves are recorded and examined and they tell the explorer what type of material (rock, water, oil, coal) they have traveled through.

So the question from William has led to further observations and thoughts which lead me to another question……If I left my garden rubbish for a year would it turn into coal? If not why?

Edited 20/10/17 – image changed, link added and seismic waves discussed

Liam (7) asks “What causes an earthquake?”

Thanks team. When the Earth cooled down the crust was formed over the whole planet.

However, after the crust was formed there was still a lot of activity in the molten core of the Earth. This caused cracks in the crust and it is these cracks which are the cause of Earthquakes. Scientists have investigated the cracks and created a map of where they are.

You can see these in the maps below.

The lines indicate the cracks on either side of our Earth. The spaces within these cracks are called  ‘plates’. These plates are constantly moving (very, very very slowly).

Any idea what is making them move?

Some plates are moving away from the plates next to them BUT that means they are also pushing up to other plates on the surface. It is this movement that causes the earthquake.

Where do you think the earthquake happens …is it in the middle or outside of a plate? Where is your country?

I have created two jigsaws of the Earth images above. Print them, stick them on some cardboard, and cut them out and make your own world of ‘plates’ and try moving them.

Link to Jigsaw 2

Link to Jigsaw 1

Want to ask a another question, or make a comment. Please do.
(Anyone reading this post who wants to ask a question or make a comment please feel free to do so)

“Why do volcanoes erupt?” asks Silas and Zakk (10)

 

Thank you Silas and Zakk for your question. My team are correct it’s all about pressure. All volcanoes have a thin ‘lid’ of solid rock which which is solidified magma. Underneath the lid is lots of molten magma which is heated by the Earth’s central core.

Things can happen to this magma. Some of it could cool, and solidify. You could also get convection currents like you do in any hot liquid. These can increase the pressure (push) on the volcano lid, break it and the pressure is released like the liquid in a bottle of fizzy drink.

Want to make a comment, please make it in the box below. Not sure about something …ask another question.
(Anyone reading this post who wants to ask a question or make a comment please feel free to do so)

(revised 13/9/17  Magna misspelling and added support text)

“How many particles are there in the Earth?” asks Ravindra (11)

Wow what a difficult question. I will ask my friends to try and answer this question.

A ‘particle’ is a tiny bit of something. So Ravinder, well done, you have asked a question that I or my friends cannot answer. Try and ask some more.

Any reader can ask another question or leave a Comment in the Leave a Reply box below

 

Elizabeth (9) asks “How does sand form in a desert?”

I agree we need to do an investigation.  The suggestion is that the desert sand might have come from the soil. Let’s see if we can find sand in the soil around us. Before we do this lets think about soil, the soil in your garden. What do you think it is made of? Maybe it is just made of soil? Maybe it is made of a mixture of things? Let’s investigate these questions.

Collect some soil. Get a plastic transparent beaker or a jar with a lid. Put a couple of small spoonfuls of your soil into the container. Add enough water so that it is half full. Cover and shake for about 20 seconds. Put it down and wait for about fifteen minutes. Now look at it and make notes on what you see. Repeat with another sample and another beaker or container (investigations always need to be checked).

Has your experiment resulted in layers of stuff in the beaker? Maybe a bit like the layers in the image below.

If it has then think about why you have layers? What has formed the first layer and why? Was it because it was the lightest or heaviest ‘stuff ‘ in the jar (soil)? Is the second layer made up of ‘stuff’ that is lighter or heavier?

The bottom layer is ‘sand’ …..the heaviest ‘stuff’ that makes up soil. The other layers are ‘silt’ and ‘clay’. Look at the diagram that my friends have given you the sand particles are the biggest.

Now to deserts. In very arid (dry) conditions the soil dries out. The wind basically blows away the smallest particles of clay and silt leaving the largest so a desert of sand is formed.

Elizabeth … thank you for your question.

‘How many volcanoes can go off at once’ is Charlotte’s (9) question

Charlotte it might be worth reminding ourselves of what is a volcano, and why do they occur. I’ll let my friends start the discussion.

volcanoes

Some interesting thoughts team but we have to look at Charlotte’s question.’How many volcanoes can go of at once?’ Firstly there are recorded to be 1500 volcanoes in the world as we know it. There are also lots of volcanoes under the sea but we don’t know how many. Of the 1500 about 500 have been active over the last 100 years. So Charlotte,  it is quite difficult to give you a definitive answer. For a volcano to erupt there needs to be some activity in the magma (the molten core of our Earth) and maybe the tectonic plates (the mantel plates that make up the surface of our Earth). Where the plates meet there is lots of tension, this normally causes earthquakes (New Zealand) but could allow magma to escape via a volcano.