“How is porcelain made?” asks Kaia (8)

Thanks team.There has already been a mention of kaolinite in a question on minerals, see this site.  My team are correct, the difference between ordinary clay pots and porcelain pots is the temperature at which the clay is ‘fired’.

The ‘firing’ process  is linked to the temperature of the kiln.

So a porcelain pot is a pot heated up to much higher temperature than that of other pots. This causes the clay to form a new mineral called Mullite.

Science Master Special – Hardness List

List of materials

wood (balsa)
wood (oak)
plastic object
bath sponge
china(cups and saucers)
glass
concrete pathway
cardboard
metal fork
coin
rock (sandstone)
piece of coal
pencil rubber

My hypothesis (idea ) is that the hardest material will be the metal. I have decided to test this by using a metal nail and trying to scratch all the samples on the list. The ease of the scratch will be linked to the softness of the material. These are the results of my test from softest to hardest.

bath sponge
cardboard
pencil rubber
Balsa wood
plastic object
wood (oak)
rock (sandstone)
piece of coal
concrete pathway
coin
metal fork
china (could not scratch)
glass (could not scratch)

Like to add some more examples …let me know by using the Reply Box.

Braiden (9) asks “What makes a diamond so hard?.

Braiden, my question (before I turn you over to my team) is how do you detect ‘hardness’? Can you create an order of hardness with some common materials?
Lets say:

wood (balsa)
wood (oak)
plastic object
bath sponge
china(cups and saucers)
glass
concrete pathway
cardboard
metal fork
coin
rock (sandstone)
piece of coal
pencil rubber 
I think that would be an interesting experiment to carry out. You will have to make sure it is a fair test (science is all about fair tests …and questions …and hypotheses and experiment). How will you carry out the experiment? ( a hypothesis is an idea – “I think soft things will float, hard things will sink”)

Now over to my team.

Graphite has a layered structure with weak forces between the layers, This is a weaker structure than the close bonding of the diamond. The carbon atoms like the tetrahedral arrangement of the bonds with other carbon atoms. It is a very strong force.

Hope that makes some sense. If you have questions about the explanation please ask them. If you want to see my ‘hardness’ list go to Science Master Special-Hardness Results

Lexi (9) and Jaeda (9) and Cadence(8) asked a question on “Minerals”

Lexi, a nice question, a lot of elements are found within the form of a mineral. I shall let my team introduce the answer to this question.

Jaeda. You asked a question on crystals and why are they so expensive. This is not  a science question however most crystals are minerals so this question is also addressed to you.

Cadence . You asked about talc, which is a mineral.

All minerals are found in rocks. It is thought that some are created by the magma (lava) from volcanoes while other were formed in the Earth’s mantle and have reached the surface through earthquake activity. The minerals created from volcanoes have smaller crystals (probably cooled faster), minerals created more slowly in the mantle consist of bigger crystals. All of the minerals are created by a chemical reaction.

A lot of minerals are mined, dug from underground shafts. A lot of minerals have the elements Silicon and  Oxygen in them.Talc is a mineral of the elements Magnesium, Silicon and Oxygen and is mainly found in Japan and the United States.

Have fun and watch this video on minerals.

Thank you Lexi, Jaeda and Cadence. If you want to comment on this post please feel free to do so in the Reply box below. Or why not ask another question.

William (9), Erika (10) and Alissa (10) asked some questions on fossil fuels

Erika asked “Why are fossil fuels so expensive?”

Alissa asked “How were fossil fuels found?”

William asked “how is oil made?”

I asked my friends to to talk about this however firstly I would like to talk about what makes a good science question.

science question is a question that may lead to observations, an idea and help us in answering (or figuring out) the reason for some observation and the question.

Erika’s question is a good economics question.

Miners (those who look for oil and coal) have a variety of clever tools to help them find the fossil fuel. For example they can use ‘sniffers’. The  sniffers can detect small amounts of oil vapour which might find their way out of the rocks that are hiding the oil. They also use seismic detection methods. Seismic waves were used to investigate the Earths core however the oil explorers do not use earthquakes to create the seismic wave – they use special guns or explosives. The shock waves (seismic waves) travel through the rock and at some point they are reflected back and return to the surface. The waves are recorded and examined and they tell the explorer what type of material (rock, water, oil, coal) they have traveled through.

So the question from William has led to further observations and thoughts which lead me to another question……If I left my garden rubbish for a year would it turn into coal? If not why?

Edited 20/10/17 – image changed, link added and seismic waves discussed

Some questions on Gold from Chantelle (7), Shelby(9) and Mary(9)

Chantelle asked “Why is gold so hard to find?”

Shelby asked “Why is gold so heavy and hard to pick up ?”

Mary asked “Why is gold so expensive?”

Chantelle, Shelby and Mary some great questions , thank you. But are they science questions? Lets look at what a science question is.

science question is a question that may lead to an idea and help us in answering (or figuring out) the reason for some observation.

For example ‘Why is gold so heavy?” …so firstly let us look at what gold is. Gold is a solid –  Is it a rock? Is it wood? Is it plastic? Is it a metal? ……it seems to fit into the group called metals (it’s cold to the touch, it’s solid, it can be scratched, it’s shiny, it’s heavy) it’s a metal. So Shelby’s second question is a good science question.

Is it heavier than other metals?  It doesn’t seem to be heavier than other metals but how do I test this?  Fair tests are important in science investigations. Being fair I compared my gold with with metals of comparable size? It is heavier, why? Maybe the bits which make up the gold are heavier than the bits that make up other metals?

Chantelle. I think gold is quite easy to find compared to other metals. Lots of other metals, iron, silver, copper and aluminium exist as minerals  so they are quite difficult to find. What is a mineral? Look at the following page.

Science Master

 

Laura G (10) asked “Is it possible to collect condensation to water a garden?”

Laura, have you ever on a warm day noticed faint water droppings on leaves of some of your plants. Where has this water come from? It might have come from the leaf itself or alternatively it might have come from the atmosphere. The atmosphere/air around us can hold an immense amount of water in its vapour form. For example a parcel of 1 cubic meter of air at 30 degrees centigrade could contain 28g ( or 28 cc) of water. There is therefore a good chance that those drips on the leaf came from the atmosphere.

The fog fence provides a surface that is colder* than the air around it and therefore a place where water vapour can condense and the water collected. The water can then be used for irrigation of plant life AND the plant life itself generates it’s own water vapour so it is possible to use a fog fence , in a desert like area to collect water, feed it to plants and begin the process of creating a self sustaining green environment.

I am happy for suggested revisions to the above arguments.

*Sorry Laura,I have given you a completely wrong bit of information. It is very unlikely that the fence would be at a different temperature from the air around us. So how does it aid condensation?  It’s made of metal. What do you feel when you touch a metal object that has been lying around on your table . It feels cold. Why? It should be at the same temperature as the rest of the objects on the table. It feels cold because metal is a good conductor of heat and as your fingers are quite warm it conducts the heat away from them and they feel cold. Maybe the metal in the fence is conducting heat away from the water vapour and because it loses heat it changes from the vapour form to the liquid form …..condensation.

Para added 15/10/17

Indianna (10) asked “If all the ice melts in Antarctica will we all drown?”

I agree. It has been calculated that the sea level would rise by about 260 ft or 70 m. This would mean cities like London and Paris would disappear BUT there still would be a lot of land. We would not all drown however life might be a bit difficult because of the crowding.

If you would like to make a comment on this answer please make it in the Reply box or ask another question. Thanks for the question Indianna.

Kelly (9) asks “Why when we have been in water for too long, does our fingers and other parts of our body become soggy and wrinkly?”

Thanks team, a good start. The water soaks into the dead skin. There is lots of dead skin on our hands and feet. There are parts of our bodies which have very little dead skin so you will find that the wrinkles do not appear there. It was thought that the soaked up water caused the skin to swell and get puffy and the wrinkles were formed.

However

It is now thought by some that the wrinkling is a nervous reaction to the water attack on the body and that the wrinkled skin is a counter reaction to the skin becoming slippery because of the water intake (wrinkles help you hold things). What do you think?

Maybe you could record your thoughts in the Leave a reply box

 

“How does sound travel in things other than air?” asks Lilly(12)

Hello Molly, Science Master here. Lets’ check that we understand how sound is produced and what it is. Sound is a form of Energy ( see Science Master Special).  It is transmitted by particles hitting each other.

So what do you think? Could you hear the sound underwater?  Could you hear the sound further along the metal tube?

Lets improve the experiment by making it fairer. How could we do this?

Let us look at the particle arrangement in the air, water and metal.

The average distance between particles for a gas is 4 nanometers (1 nanometer = 10-9 meters), for a liquid it is 0.2 of a nanometer and for the solid 0.0002 of a nanometer.

So. If the first line of particles in the gas starts moving it has to travel 4 nanometers before it hits the second row. For the liquid this would be a smaller distance and for the metal it would be hardly any distance. What does that tell you about the speed of travel of sound?

Does your experiments support your thoughts? Maybe it needs to be modified? How could you modify it to really test your thoughts.

Just a thought of my own. The sound source (drum, spoon tapping, violin) gives the particles around it ENERGY. Those particles in air have to travel a long distance before they hit another particle and pass the sound on. All this time they are losing ENERGY. For the metal the particles only have to travel a little way before passing on the vibration.

(added 27/10/16)

Not sure of something Lilly…ask another question.

(Anyone reading this post who wants to ask a question or make a comment please feel free to do so)