“I have a question about Hermann’s tortoises” says Christopher (10)

Many thanks team. The Western Hermann’s tortoise has evolved in the warmer parts of Europe while the Eastern Hermann’s tortoise has evolved in the colder parts of Europe where the ice age lasted longer. The Eastern tortoise is bigger than the Western one and it has been determined that it probably evolved faster than the Western tortoise. They can be distinguished by their carapace and plastron patterns. The images below are from Chris Leone
The Plastron

The Carapace

Maybe, Christopher you could tell me how long tortoises live? All you need to do is tell me in the Reply box below.?

Changes to title, images  and added information on tortoises (21/11/17)

Laura G (10) asked “Is it possible to collect condensation to water a garden?”

Laura, have you ever on a warm day noticed faint water droppings on leaves of some of your plants. Where has this water come from? It might have come from the leaf itself or alternatively it might have come from the atmosphere. The atmosphere/air around us can hold an immense amount of water in its vapour form. For example a parcel of 1 cubic meter of air at 30 degrees centigrade could contain 28g ( or 28 cc) of water. There is therefore a good chance that those drips on the leaf came from the atmosphere.

The fog fence provides a surface that is colder* than the air around it and therefore a place where water vapour can condense and the water collected. The water can then be used for irrigation of plant life AND the plant life itself generates it’s own water vapour so it is possible to use a fog fence , in a desert like area to collect water, feed it to plants and begin the process of creating a self sustaining green environment.

I am happy for suggested revisions to the above arguments.

*Sorry Laura,I have given you a completely wrong bit of information. It is very unlikely that the fence would be at a different temperature from the air around us. So how does it aid condensation?  It’s made of metal. What do you feel when you touch a metal object that has been lying around on your table . It feels cold. Why? It should be at the same temperature as the rest of the objects on the table. It feels cold because metal is a good conductor of heat and as your fingers are quite warm it conducts the heat away from them and they feel cold. Maybe the metal in the fence is conducting heat away from the water vapour and because it loses heat it changes from the vapour form to the liquid form …..condensation.

Para added 15/10/17

“If all living things were in one food chain, what would be at the top?” asks Chelsea and Ashli (10)

Thanks team. I found a nice little revision site on food chains that you might like to try, find it at Food Chain Game.

Now to your question. Firstly it might be a little difficult putting all living things into one food chain. Secondly do you think it would be humans?  Ecologists (They are scientists who specialise in studying the living environment) rank species by their diets using a metric*  called the trophic level scale. Plants, which produce their own food, are given a rank of 1. Herbivores, which eat only plants, are ranked 2. The fiercest of meat-loving predators, such as killer whales, are rated at 5.5. Humans are rated at 2.5 which is the same level as a pig.

If you want to make a comment please use the box below or you could ask another question.

* metric as a noun means a standard scale of measurement so you could call a temperature scale a metric or any other standard scale of measurement a metric.

(Anyone reading this post who wants to ask a question or make a comment please feel free to do so)

(updated 13/9/17 -changed metric to measurement)
(updated 15/9/17 – ‘measurement’ back to ‘metric’ after realising it was the correct word in the context in which it was presented, added addendum explaining it’s use as a noun)

“Why do volcanoes erupt?” asks Silas and Zakk (10)

 

Thank you Silas and Zakk for your question. My team are correct it’s all about pressure. All volcanoes have a thin ‘lid’ of solid rock which which is solidified magma. Underneath the lid is lots of molten magma which is heated by the Earth’s central core.

Things can happen to this magma. Some of it could cool, and solidify. You could also get convection currents like you do in any hot liquid. These can increase the pressure (push) on the volcano lid, break it and the pressure is released like the liquid in a bottle of fizzy drink.

Want to make a comment, please make it in the box below. Not sure about something …ask another question.
(Anyone reading this post who wants to ask a question or make a comment please feel free to do so)

(revised 13/9/17  Magna misspelling and added support text)

Donna (7) asks “Where do clouds come from?”

Donna, many thanks for the question. Before trying to answer it I thought I would ask my team a question.

Donna, what do you think about the puddles question? Think about how you would answer it and then go to my answer to a previous question.

Now to your question. Firstly I have created a little animation to show how the puddle disappear. You have to imagine that the shapes are water particles (molecules is the proper word). In the puddle they are all moving around. Most of them like being with the other particles BUT some are just moving around a little bit too fast and manage to escape from the puddle. When the Sun begins to warm the puddle it makes more water particles move around faster and more escape. This goes on until the puddle disappears.

 

The water particles are very small and are are lifted by the air up into the sky. High above the ground the air is quite cold so the water particles ‘slow down’. When they are moving ever so slowly if they meet another water particle they join up with each other and form droplets of water. This is how a cloud begins to form.

At home look at the steam from a kettle, BE VERY CAREFUL AND CONSULT AN ADULT.  At the exit of the kettle spout you can see nothing, BUT just above this the hot water particles begin to cool down and slow down and reform clouds of water.

(revised 21/4/17)

A question “How does the world work”

Some time ago a well known scientist (James Lovelock) suggested that the Earth (our planet) was special. He claimed that the Earth itself was a living thing and had control over its environment. He gave the Earth the name Gaia (a Greek name for the goddess of the Earth) and suggested that the planet’s objective was to support life on it, at all cost.

It has been argued, by those who support this idea, that there is a lot of evidence from investigating the Earth’s history over the last 3 billion years, that suggest the idea is valid. Below are some of those arguments. What do you think?


Note
The Gaia idea is something called an hypothesis (an idea). It has yet to be proven. If proven it can then be called a theory.