Jose (10) asks –What is Plasma?

Jose, thanks for your question. I gave it to my team. Here is their answer…..


Thanks team, I liked your answer. Jose…can you understand. A gas, solid or liquid consists of small particles called molecules. A drop of water contains thousands of water molecules. Each molecule consists of two Hydrogen atoms and one Oxygen atom. Each atom consists of a core of a number of positively charged particles called ‘protons‘ which are surrounded by an equal number of negatively charged particles called ‘electrons‘. If we manage to remove an electron from the water molecule …it leaves the water molecule with one less negatively charged electron so it becomes positively charged. It forms a Plasma.

Ella (10) asks “Was there ever any life form on Venus?”

Many thanks for the question Ella. At the present time there is no evidence that there has been any form of life on the planet Venus. Venus is quite close to the Sun, it is the second planet. Because of it’s closeness to the Sun it is a very hot planet.

It would be brilliant if we did find evidence of life on the other planets of our solar system. It would be evidence that at one time life on Earth was not alone in our Universe. If that was the case we could assume that life could exist on other planets in our Universe.

The planet that is closest to the Earth is Mars. At one stage during its existence Mars had a lot of water on its surface. As life on our Earth originated in it’s oceans any life on Mars might have started in its oceans.

I’ll let my friends continue the conversation.

There are plans to build a new Space Station that will allow humans to go to Mars. Meanwhile there are several mechanical ‘rover’ devices on the surface of Mars which at this very moment are looking for evidence wether life, did once, exist on Mars.

“Will the world ever end?” asks Caroline (10)

Caroline. let us look at the possibilities that the team have suggested.

Yes we are destroying our world. Climate change will in the next hundreds of years will  probably make the Earth unlivable for humans. There might be some animals that will survive so life will survive even if we do not.

There are other things that could destroy our world. An asteroid strike killed the dinosaurs and if there is another strike it could kill humanity. It is reckoned that the Sun is about midway through it’s life. It will at some time begin to die BUT this will not happen for billions of years. When it does die the Earth (our planet) will also die.

Luisa 9 asks “How did the first humans appear?”

Thank you Luisa for your second question.  Here are my friends thoughts about how humans appeared.

Thanks team, Luisa let me add some more details.

My friends are correct, it is thought that the first life appeared millions of years ago. The life that formed was not at all like the animals and plants that we see around today. It was very, very small. So small that we would have needed a microscope to see it.  Over the next thousands of years that life changed (we say it evolved) and it reproduced. Sometimes when it reproduced mistakes were made and bigger forms of life were formed. Eventually a mistake in the reproduction led to the first plant (a moss) being formed.

Over the next thousands of years further mistakes were made and  the first animal was born. From then onwards the evolution of animals and plants continued…….UNTIL …..again many thousands of years ago the first apes evolved. The apes continued to have babies and further mistakes were made …… the baby apes walked upright, their brains were bigger, they had less hair, all small changes but over thousands of years small changes can become big changes. The result was that humans were formed and you, me and everybody else are the result.

Things haven’t stopped ….changes (evolution) continues …..we might be very different in many thousands of years time.

Hope this helps. Not happy about something, then ask another question.

Unknown (age 7) asked – “Why is the sky blue?”

Hello unknown. I would not normally answer questions to an unknown questioner, but, as it it such an interesting question I asked my friends for some comments.

You are right. Where does the colour come from? It was in 1671 that the famous scientist, Newton, discovered that white light was a mixture of different coloured lights. He did this by passing white light (the light from the Sun) through a glass prism. Look at what he got……….

Later it was found that some of the blue light in the Sun’s light had difficulty passing through the Earth’s atmosphere. this blue light was scattered as it passed through the atmosphere therefore giving the sky a blue colour.

Some of the blue light still got through and appears as part of the white light in the prism experiment and also in the rainbow. In the rainbow the drops of rainwater act as small prisms.

Hope this makes sense. if you want to give your name please let me know in the comment box.

(amended 21/9/18 – raindrops as prisms added)

“What does “eco” in ecosystem mean?” asks Austin (8)

I will just add a few words myself. Thanks for your input.

I like the idea of an ant’s nest being an example of an ecosystem. The nest is ‘everything’ it’s a home, a place to live and to work from, a creche for baby ants, a food store, a food production place, a protective environment, maybe an ant hospital, and lot’s more. It is an ecosystem.

The word ‘eco’ also combines with ‘logy to form ‘ecology’. This is like the word ‘bio’ combining with ‘logy’ to form ‘biology’.  The word ‘logy’ is a word which originally described lots of learning.

I will stop now. For an eight year old I think everything gets very complicated. I very much like the ant’s nest described as an ecosystem.Maybe you could let me know of other ecosystems?


Hayley (11) asks “Were unicorns ever real????”

Thanks for the question Hayley. My friends are back from their holiday so I asked them ….this is their answer.

The fact that there are no fossils does not mean that unicorns never existed. If you look at how modern humans evolved (changed) from apes there are a lot of gaps in our understanding, which could be linked to fossils that have not yet been found.

Where fossils have been found we can get lots and lots of information from them especially from the age of the rock in which they are found. This is to do with something called radioactive decay. This allows the fossils to be placed fairly accurately on the ‘evolution table’.

Evolution is the change in the inherited characteristics of  populations of living things over successive generations. Evolutionary processes give rise to diversity at every level of the population. For example a pair of monkeys might give birth to an albino (white) baby. If that baby, when it is older, gives birth to an albino baby, we could call that an evolutionary change which might, in a few thousand years create a whole population of albino monkeys.

I have two immediate thoughts about unicorns. Firstly they are completely made up and secondly they are a brief part of an evolutionary  story that didn’t survive. For example an animal (horse, deer, goat or other animal) was born with one horn by some biological accident, it lived but it’s children were ‘normal’ so the trait ended.

I prefer the mythical, made up model. I would like your thoughts.


Will (8) asks “What makes seeds grow?”


Will, thank you for your question. Let’s start with some interesting questions. Answers to these might help in answering your question. Firstly is a fruit a seed?  If it is not a seed then what is it for? Does it help the seed grow? How will we know if the seed is growing? What does a seed need to grow? Does it need soil? Do seeds grow when it is cold? Do different seeds grow at different speeds? What do you think? Are there any more questions? Remember questions are what science is all about. By investigating questions you are building knowledge of the world around you.

So, let’s think about how we could investigate some of these questions. Shall we look at just one type of seed, or choose a variety of different seeds to investigate? Maybe looking at one type of seed would help us begin to answer some of the questions. We could then look at another type of seed and compare the results. Maybe one seed would grow faster than the other?

Now we have to think about the conditions for our growing experiment ….. soil/no soil, wet/dry, light/no light, hot/cold. Even for our selected seed this can be very complicated. Can you see why?

The investigation equipment could probably be obtained at home. A empty plastic bottle, with the top cut off, would be a good holder for the seed. Some cotton wool could act as soil. A cupboard and a refrigerator could also help you create the right environment.

Let me know how it went?

Some more questions about the Solar System and Space by Seb, Luke, Luca, Sammy and Bowen

Many thanks for your questions. I told the last group that, 3 days ago I visited the Kennedy Space Centre in Orlando. It was brilliant. I was particularly interested in their idea to visit Mars in the near future. However let us look at the other superb questions and see how many other questions they create….that is what science is about.

Seb asked  “What does Mercury orbit?”

Seb, many thanks for the question. Not long ago, in our history, everybody thought that the Sun orbited the Earth. Why shouldn’t they? You see the Sun rise everyday and move across the sky and then disappears on the opposite horizon. It moves, we don’t.

Or could it be the other way – the Earth moves and the Sun stays in the same place? This was a question that a early scientist Copernicus (1473-1543) thought about and and then Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) confirmed was the Earth that orbited the Sun. With this knowledge other scientists (we call them astronomers) worked out what Mercury orbited. What do you think?

Luke asked  “Do Saturn,Neptune or Venus orbit any planets other than the sun/orbit each other?”

A question I think that is linked to Seb’s. What evidence would you think would show that a planet orbited another planet? Think about the Moon, what does that orbit? Does it orbit the Sun? Supposing it did, what would you observe?  It was Galilei who built a telescope that would enable observations of the planets and therefore provide evidence which would answer the question. Like all science once the hypothesis has been made it can only become an accepted fact after relevant observation and production of evidence.

Luca asked “What is the furthest distance of a spaceship travel?” and “What is space made of?”

Luca, two great questions. For the first question I must admit I have no idea. From my visit to the Space Centre I know that NASA is planning to go to Mars. I see no reason why humankind will not be able, in the future, to leave the Solar System. We can already send satellites and other objects beyond the Solar System.

To your second question, the easy answer is ‘nothing’, other than stars, planets, asteroids, satellites and other bits an pieces. It does however contain what would be called ‘radiation’ of different types, otherwise we would not be able to see stars, the Moon or the Sun. Do you think it could contain anything else?

Interestingly, in Earth orbit, you would not be able to see any stars in space? Any ideas why?

Sammy asked “Can a black hole swallow Earth? If so when could this happen?”

Sammy, what do you think a black hole is? Why do you think it is called a black hole? I think it is something to do with that magical force called gravity. Think about gravity.  What does the gravitational force that an object has, depend upon?  Think about the force that pulls you to the ground. Think about the force that keeps the Earth in orbit around the Sun. Think about the force that holds the Moon in orbit. A black hole is a hole which light has been pulled into it, by a gravitational force. Think about a gravitational force that can pull light into it …….will it be able to swallow the Earth?

Sammy …something I didn’t know. It is thought that all galaxies have a black hole. Even our Milky Way galaxy has its own black hole.

A NASA photograph of a black hole. There is one…its a dot in the middle of the bright circle in the middle of the picture.

Bowen asked “Why do humans still think that there are resources on the moon? I think there are none.

A interesting question Bowen which I would like to challenge. Why do you think there are none? My thinking is that the Moon seems to be made of rocks and rocks are sources of all sorts of things. A lot of rocks contain silicon, what do we use silicon for? A lot of rocks (moon rocks included) contain aluminum which is used in a variety of ways, the rocks also contain hidden oxygen, a lot of rocks exist in the form of oxides (iron oxide is an example). Probably the biggest resource that the Moon has  is a low gravity. Any ideas why that is so important? Let me know.

“I have a question about Hermann’s tortoises” says Christopher (10)

Many thanks team. The Western Hermann’s tortoise has evolved in the warmer parts of Europe while the Eastern Hermann’s tortoise has evolved in the colder parts of Europe where the ice age lasted longer. The Eastern tortoise is bigger than the Western one and it has been determined that it probably evolved faster than the Western tortoise. They can be distinguished by their carapace and plastron patterns. The images below are from Chris Leone
The Plastron

The Carapace

Maybe, Christopher you could tell me how long tortoises live? All you need to do is tell me in the Reply box below.?

Many thanks to
Chris Leone for his images
Changes to title, images  and added information on tortoises (21/11/17)