Amasidda (?) asked “Give one reason to prove that light is form of energy”


Then Amasidda you might be able to answer the question yourself.  Think about what all forms of energy – electric (electricity), light, heat (thermal), movement (kinetic), nuclear, chemical, sound, gravitational, can do. Can they all in some way do work? Can they all be converted from one from one form of energy to another?

What do you think ‘work’ is? Let me know in the comment box below.

Liam (10) asks “Why does warm air go up?”


Thanks team. You are quite right we have to start at the beginning to really understand why warm air goes up. Let’s start by looking at what is air?

Air is a mixture of small gas particles (called molecules) of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and some other gases. The image below could be a picture of what it would look like, if you could see it. What do you notice about it?

The red molecules are the oxygen, the blue the nitrogen and the others water and carbon dioxide. Imagine them moving around (I am trying to make an animation). Because they are moving they have energy.

If we heat the air, we are giving the molecules in it more energy. This makes them move faster and they move further apart.

The ‘thicker’ cold air surrounding the warm air drops into the space under the warm air and doing so pushes up the warm air which rises.

You can see this happening in a beaker of heated water.

Viper Astra (9) asks “What makes earthquakes happen?”

Viper, to answer your question it might be useful if we go back to the beginning. By the beginning I mean 4.6 billion years ago when the planet was first formed. Then it was a ball of molten lava. (1 billion is 1,000,000,000 or one thousand, million)

Over the next billion years the planet cooled and bits of crust formed on its surface. We call these bits of crust tectonic plates (the word ‘tectonic’ comes from the ancient Greek word for ‘building’ ……the crust is ‘building a surface’). These bits of crust got bigger, sometimes sunk into the molten sea they were floating on, but slowly covered the Earth.

Because they floated, the ‘plates’ of crust would have constantly experienced the movement of the molten ‘sea’ below them, so they moved and bumped into each other, and they are still doing that today. It is the movement and the, bumping into each other that causes earthquakes.

Watch this short video. It explains the different types of earthquake that can occur.

Thanks for the question Viper. Not sure about something then ask another question.

Ellie (12) asks “What are the damages of hurricanes?”

Great question Ellie. I was going to ask my team to tackle this, however for some reason the question was left unanswered so to apologize I think I will try to answer it myself.

How is a hurricane created?

Air is made up of tiny molecules. When molecules are heated, they move faster. As they move faster they become become spaced farther apart, which makes the air less dense – meaning that there are fewer molecules in a given volume. This also means that the air has a lower overall pressure – pressure is the push of the gas on it’s surroundings. In comparison, cold air is made of more tightly packed molecules, and so it is denser and has relatively higher pressure.

The warmer, lower pressure air begins to move upwards and therefore it creates space below it which is filled by the colder higher pressure air. The warmer air ‘floats’ on the colder air. It also carries with it water vapour – water that has evaporated and contains lots of energy. A wind begins to be created. The hotter the air near the surface of the sea, the lower the pressure and the faster the rise.

As this warm air gets higher it begins to cool and also the water vapour that would have risen with it begins to turn back to water. A cloud begins to form. The energy of the condensing water vapour is given to the cloud.

The cloud of colder air and water vapour begins to move in circles (because the Earth is rotating). It meets other storm clouds. The hurricane is forming and is being fed by the warm air close to the warm sea.

What are the damages of the hurricane?

The strong winds of a hurricane can push water up and onto land. This water can cause major flooding and damage to homes, cars, and boats. Heavy Rains – Hurricanes can cause heavy rains that flood places inland and away from the center of the storm.

This video will help explain the formation of the hurricane.




Keith (13) asked a question about thermal papers in cash machines.

Keith’s question
More and more places are using thermal paper as a form of receipt paper for customers. With time the information fades. How can one scientifically go about recovering information which may have faded from thermal paper.

Keith, many thanks for the question. I never realised that thermal(heat sensitive) paper was used in so many places and that it is also the basis on which the polaroid camera worked.

Thermal paper is made using a collection of dyes which exist as colourless crystals that become coloured when they interact with an acid.

For those who enjoy their chemistry you might have come across adding a dye called phenolphthalein to an acid solution. The dye changes from colourless to a deep purple.

The applied heat (from the cash register machine) melts a layer in the paper which contains acid crystals. The liquid acid then interacts with the layer below it which contains a colourless crystalline dye which changes colour as the acid interacts with it.  The print then shows. The acid quickly becomes crystalline again.

Over time the print does begin to disappear.

A little investigation.

Obtain an old till receipt which your adults do not want to save. Put it onto an ironing board and with a hot (care) iron, iron it.


To make it more scientific predict what you think might happen before you carry out the experiment. Any ideas, if so you have a hypothesis.  Now find a very old (fading) receipt and using a hair drier blow warm air onto the BACK of the receipt. Again predict.

I think I’ll stop there. Many thanks for the question Keith. Please comment or ask another question.

Hello (13) asks “How do tectonic plates work and influence earthquakes?”

Quite right my friend it’s all about convection. Warm water, air, oil, or any liquid/gas stuff  will move upwards (rise) when it is heated. Why. Think about it.

Lets think of an experiment (this is a science blog) where we can test this idea and then move on to the question that Hello asked.

The experiment

You will need a beaker of water, some pencil lead, 3  A batteries, two leads with attached crocodile clips and some food colouring and a dropper

Connect the pencil lead to the batteries using the leads. As the electricity passes through the pencil lead, the pencil lead will heat up. Drop the attached lead into the water. Look carefully at the water, what is happening. If you put a small screen behind the beaker of water and shine a torch on the water you will be able to get a better view of what is happening to the water.


Drop a small amount of food colouring into the water.

Hopefully what you will see are convection currents that have been created by the water close to the lead  warming up and beginning to rise. The next question is WHY.

Warning. Do not use mains electricity. It could be very dangerous and kill you.

Why does the water rise?

When the water particles(molecules) come into close contact with the heated pencil lead they gain kinetic energy (see Science Master Special Energy), they move faster. The water molecules spread out so that in any given space there are less water molecules (less dense). This means that gravity comes into action and the colder water can begin to move into the space where the warm water was. The warmer water ‘floats’ on top of the cold water. The cold water then gets warm and and more cold water moves in and the original warm water floats up higher in the beaker. As the warm water rises it gets colder and more dense and eventually will join the column of cold water that is moving (by gravity) downwards toward the hot pencil lead. Wow…..I hope you can see the picture

The movement of the tectonic plates is caused by convection currents and it is this movement that can cause earthquakes. Hopefully when you watch the excellent video below you will see the links.

Hello. If you would like to question anything, please make a comment or ask another question.



(Anyone reading this post who wants to ask a question or make a comment please feel free to do so)

“Why do metals always feel cold when I touch them?” asks Chen (8)

My question is, are the metals colder or warmer than the things around them? We need to test this question. So how?

We need find out if other materials behave in the same way.  We therefore need to test it with other materials, for example, wood, plastic, china and glass.

To make the test fair (an important part of my experiment) we need to make sure that all of the materials are at the same temperature at the start of the experiment. We can test this by taping a thermometer to the materials, leaving it there for a period of time (maybe 5 minutes) before touching each of them. Do they feel hot or cold? Do they feel like they are at the same temperature that you are.

What did you find out? If the metal, or other material did feel colder, or warmer, than the others then why?  Let me know what you think by filling in the Reply box below and post your comment or ask another Question . Anybody can do this.

Science Master Special – Energy

Thanks team. I would like to add a few things.

Firstly the list of different types of energy is not complete. If you can think of some more then ‘Leave a reply’ in the box below.

Secondly it is interesting how the energy conversions can take place. For example a microphone converts sound energy into electrical energy and a loudspeaker does the reverse process, it converts electrical energy into sound energy. Can you think of other examples?

Any reader can leave a Comment in the Leave a Reply box below

Science Master Special – atoms, molecules, intra and inter molecular forces, heat energy and kinetic movement

There is a bit of everything in the title. Maybe the basis of everything as we know it up to now.

    • Atoms are the foundation of our understanding of matter (all the stuff around us).
    • Molecules are the the building blocks that are constructed from atoms to build the stuff around us.
    • The forces between atoms that make up the molecule are called intramolecular forces.
    • The forces between the molecules that the atoms make are are the intermolecular forces.
    • The study of molecular kinetics is the study of the movement of particles and the movement is usually associated with applied heat. Heat energy and movement are strongly linked. Heat something and it moves faster.

For a more detailed look at the structure of atoms look at this Science Master Special

Any questions?

If you have any please ask them in the Reply section below.

Jamie asked a question – “Why does water sometimes boil at different temperatures?”

I must apoligise to Jamie because he specifically asked about the water in Yellowstone River boiling at 106 0 C.  Why does it do that? Does water boil at a higher or lower temperature in other situations? I asked my friends about this.

Jamie, the properties of water does depend on it’s intermolecular structure. If it didn’t have these intermolecular forces (called hydrogen bonds) the water would likely be a gas at room temperature. Life on Earth would therefore be impossible or maybe very different.

Ok, water is as it is now, so why can it’s boiling point change? The main reason is the environment in which it is trying to boil, not the water. Boiling is linked to the process of the water molecules getting enough energy from the heat source to make it move so fast that the intermolecular forces can be broken and it can escape from the water into it’s environment.


If the environment is changed this can affect the boiling point. Make the environment thicker(more dense) and the water molecules have greater difficulty in escaping making the boiling point go up, in the kitchen a pressure cooker prevents the faster water molecules from escaping.  Make the environment thinner (go up a mountain, where the air is ‘thinner’) and you make it easier for the water molecules to escape so the boiling point goes down.


There is another way to affect the intermolecular forces of the water molecules. Introduce something into the water that increases the intermolecular bonding. Introducing salt NaCl, which gives Na+ and Cl ions in water. These make it more difficult for the water molecules to become gaseous molecules so the boiling point go up.

There are other posts that could help you…..On intermolecular forces and a game you could play and adapt.