Science Master Special – Atomic Structure

This is a great video describing atomic structure.

And here is an example of the structure of an iron atom.

Note that most of the electrons are ‘paired’ with the exception of a few ‘free’ electrons in the outermost orbit.

Lexi (9) and Jaeda (9) and Cadence(8) asked a question on “Minerals”

Lexi, a nice question, a lot of elements are found within the form of a mineral. I shall let my team introduce the answer to this question.

Jaeda. You asked a question on crystals and why are they so expensive. This is not  a science question however most crystals are minerals so this question is also addressed to you.

Cadence . You asked about talc, which is a mineral.

All minerals are found in rocks. It is thought that some are created by the magma (lava) from volcanoes while other were formed in the Earth’s mantle and have reached the surface through earthquake activity. The minerals created from volcanoes have smaller crystals (probably cooled faster), minerals created more slowly in the mantle consist of bigger crystals. All of the minerals are created by a chemical reaction.

A lot of minerals are mined, dug from underground shafts. A lot of minerals have the elements Silicon and  Oxygen in them.Talc is a mineral of the elements Magnesium, Silicon and Oxygen and is mainly found in Japan and the United States.

Have fun and watch this video on minerals.

Thank you Lexi, Jaeda and Cadence. If you want to comment on this post please feel free to do so in the Reply box below. Or why not ask another question.

“How do compounds and elements work together?” asks Candice (13)

Thanks for that information team. It does illustrate the relationship between elements and compounds and the way in which they work together. To understand this a little more you will have to know  more about the structure of  the atoms which make up the elements. All of the atoms of the 118 elements have a different number of protons in their nucleus and this dictates the way in which they behave in the formation of compound.

Below is a drawing of an atom of the element Lithium with the electrons, protons and neutrons.

I hope this gives you some answers to your question. If not please comment or ask another question.

PS  You and your friends might be interested in the crossword puzzle background. Its all about atoms, elements and compounds. You can download the crossword and the answers from the link below.

(Anyone reading this post who wants to ask a question or make a comment please feel free to do so)

Malina (13) asks – If blood has iron in it , is it magnetic?


Apologies accepted. Yes Malina, it was an interesting question.

What I need to ask you, is do you know about electrons? If you do then you will know that elements like iron are made up of atoms. Each atom of iron has a nucleus of protons (positively charged particles, 26) and neutrons (uncharged particles, 30) and surrounding the nucleus are the electrons (26 negatively charged  particles). It’s the way the electrons behave that makes thing interesting. In normal elements like carbon, silicon and sulphur all the electrons are ‘tied’ to the nucleus. They cannot leave the nucleus. In the metallic elements some of the electrons are ‘tied’ but the others are free to move away from the nucleus. This is why metals can conduct electricity (which is the movement of electrons along a metallic wire). It is the free electrons which dictate whether an element is magnetic or not.

Still with me? Hope so – if not you could ask another question.

The electrons themselves are like small magnets and some of them ‘pair up’ as magnets can do. For some elements who have an odd number of free electrons you end up with a lot of free electrons for the others you get complete pairing. See below  for a pairing image.


A metal is classified as ferromagnetic (very magnetic) if it has a lot of unpaired free electrons. iron and nickel are two examples.

When the iron atom begins to combine with other elements to form your hemoglobin there is further pairing of electrons between the iron atoms and the things it is combining with so it loses it’s magnetism.

That was a lot to understand. Hope you have managed.


Mara (11) asked a question about elements and why they exist in different states at room temperature.

Mara’s question was “Why is it that some elements are Gases or Solids at room temperature? I can understand why we would need them to be different, and my first guess would be that the density of the element is the answer, but I don’t know how that would work. So I wonder how is that some elements are different at room temperature, and why aren’t they all solids or all gases?”

Mara, many thanks for an interesting question. I asked my friends about this and your ideas.

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Some thoughts. I am thinking about the individual ‘atoms’ that make up the structure of an element. For Hydrogen you have two atoms joined by a bond, and the attraction between each Hydrogen molecule (the name given to bonded hydrogen structure) is very small. For the element Carbon you have a complex structure of bonding atoms each carbon atom being bonded to four other carbon atoms (it has one of the highest melting points). For the metals you have a fairly loose bond between the atoms BUT some of the atoms are very ‘heavy’ and as melting any element means giving it energy and making the atoms move apart … the more energy you have to supply… the higher the melting point. (see my little story on a previous post).

So like you suggested in your question it is a complex situation, with lots of different factors affecting the temperature at which an element melts and maybe density is part of that…. (revised 24/07/16). You can ‘Leave a Reply’ or ask another question if you want further thoughts.