Mason (7) asks “Why is water wet?”

Thanks team. Let us start with a investigation. Let us look at the way water interacts with different materials.


Let us now look at the properties of water drops. Firstly let me define ‘cohesion’ and ‘adhesion’. The term ‘hesion’ means  … to stick. Cohesion is is the attraction and sticking together of the same things while adhesion is the attraction and sticking together of different things.

Look at the image of the water drop below. Each water particle is attracted to the other water particles around it , this is cohesion. Now add a different surface and the water particles are attracted to that rather than each other, this is adhesion. When adhesion occurs we get the spreading of the water drop and wetting,  providing the adhesive forces are greater than the cohesive forces.

So what about your investigation? Is there any evidence of cohesion or adhesion?

You could let me know by clicking on the ‘Reply’ box below.

Science Master Special – Atomic Structure

This is a great video describing atomic structure.

And here is an example of the structure of an iron atom.

Note that most of the electrons are ‘paired’ with the exception of a few ‘free’ electrons in the outermost orbit.

“How does a magnet become a magnet?” asks Ava (11)

A brilliant question Ava. I asked my team for their thoughts.

Yes team you are quite right there are some limitations to magnet making. The main one is that only certain metals can be made into magnets. These metals are called ferromagnetic metals.

Included in this group are the metal iron and the alloys of iron with the metals cobalt, nickel and some other rare earth elements .

It is thought that in these metals (including iron) have some electrons called ‘free electrons’ (not sure what an electron is, then go to Science Master Special – Atoms and Atomic Structure). It is these ‘free electrons’ that are involved in magnetism. In the alloys the  ‘free’ electrons align themselves with the magnetism of the external magnet, making a (for the alloys) a permanent magnet. For iron alone the magnetism is only temporary and you can test this in the experiment below.


Look at the short video I have made below. In the ferromagnetic metal (iron alloy) crystal domains you will see free electrons. In the metal these will be moving freely. As they begin to interact with the external magnetic field, they begin to align themselves, making a permanent magnet.












“I have a question about Hermann’s tortoises” says Christopher (10)

Many thanks team. The Western Hermann’s tortoise has evolved in the warmer parts of Europe while the Eastern Hermann’s tortoise has evolved in the colder parts of Europe where the ice age lasted longer. The Eastern tortoise is bigger than the Western one and it has been determined that it probably evolved faster than the Western tortoise. They can be distinguished by their carapace and plastron patterns. The images below are from Chris Leone
The Plastron

The Carapace

Maybe, Christopher you could tell me how long tortoises live? All you need to do is tell me in the Reply box below.?

Many thanks to
Chris Leone for his images
Changes to title, images  and added information on tortoises (21/11/17)

Ellie (12) asks “What are the damages of hurricanes?”

Great question Ellie. I was going to ask my team to tackle this, however for some reason the question was left unanswered so to apologize I think I will try to answer it myself.

How is a hurricane created?

Air is made up of tiny molecules. When molecules are heated, they move faster. As they move faster they become become spaced farther apart, which makes the air less dense – meaning that there are fewer molecules in a given volume. This also means that the air has a lower overall pressure – pressure is the push of the gas on it’s surroundings. In comparison, cold air is made of more tightly packed molecules, and so it is denser and has relatively higher pressure.

The warmer, lower pressure air begins to move upwards and therefore it creates space below it which is filled by the colder higher pressure air. The warmer air ‘floats’ on the colder air. It also carries with it water vapour – water that has evaporated and contains lots of energy. A wind begins to be created. The hotter the air near the surface of the sea, the lower the pressure and the faster the rise.

As this warm air gets higher it begins to cool and also the water vapour that would have risen with it begins to turn back to water. A cloud begins to form. The energy of the condensing water vapour is given to the cloud.

The cloud of colder air and water vapour begins to move in circles (because the Earth is rotating). It meets other storm clouds. The hurricane is forming and is being fed by the warm air close to the warm sea.

What are the damages of the hurricane?

The strong winds of a hurricane can push water up and onto land. This water can cause major flooding and damage to homes, cars, and boats. Heavy Rains – Hurricanes can cause heavy rains that flood places inland and away from the center of the storm.

This video will help explain the formation of the hurricane.




“How do people survive in the jungle?” asks Lachlan (8)

Thank you team, for your comments.

You are right Homo Sapiens survived because of their hunting and gathering skills.They were better at it than their fellow humans  Homo Neanderthal and the other human groups (Homo erectus, Homo ergaster, Homo rudolfensis …..)

Some clever people have found, that we still have hunting and gathering skills in our blood. So there you are, we will/might be able to cope in a jungle environment.

Revised 11/11/17 – added other homo species.

“Why does the sky go green when it hails?” asks Swifty (11)

What a question? Thanks  team for your thoughts. To me it seems to be a unique mixing of the colours from our sunlight. We know that the blue sky is because of the blue part of the spectrum of colour that comes from the white light from the Sun.

Some of the blue part of that spectrum of light is scattered when it hits the molecules of Oxygen and Nitrogen in Earth’s atmosphere. So blue coloured light illuminates the daytime sky. We know that when we see a sunset we can see a red sky in the distance and that is because we are looking at the Sun through a lot more atmosphere than we would do in a normal day. This is the dust that is in the atmosphere. In the experiment the milk acts as a ‘dust’ in the water.

I attach a NASA video that explains this then I will tell you my ideas about a green sky.

My thinking, and that of some others, is that the green sky is linked to the storm clouds (the background image above, was a pause in the hailstorm that the cyclists were experiencing). These were preventing some of the sunlight reaching the viewer who saw a yellow light mixed with the blue sunlight. the mixture of these lights could have caused the green light (a cyano type of light, like that below).

Very happy to hear comments and questions. Remember science development is about admitting your ignorance and my thoughts above are just thoughts. You and I need to do some further investigations.

Revised 10/1/18 to include experiment and colour example.

Caroline (10) asks “Will the world ever end?”

Thanks team. It is thought that in 4.5 billion years time the dying Sun, then a Red Dwarf will expand as it runs out of energy. The expansion will reach our worlds orbit so the planet Earth will be destroyed.

Obviously before then the Earth might be hit by asteroids or some other catastrophic event so although the planet might survive, life upon it might be destroyed.

Below is a short animation of the Sun’s expansion at the end of it’s life.








Jessie (13) asked “Why do humans age until 100 years old in average and not further?”

The Hydra are a group of invertebrates (animals that do not have backbones) that look like tiny tubes with tentacles protruding off one end. They grow only about 0.4 inches (10 millimeters) long and eat even tinier aquatic animals AND they seem to be immortal, they can live forever without aging.

So why can’t we? There are several reasons. One of them is the inability of our cells to continually divide. The cells of bacteria seem to be able to divide, and form two daughter cells endlessly. Our cells only seem to be able to divide about 60 times …. so after that time the part of the body that the cells support begins to degenerate (die).

The cell dividing and subsequent regenerating is controlled by our DNA. It tells the body what to do. Over the years our DNA becomes damaged by a variety of things and the instructions for regeneration are lost.

However the hydra survives so maybe that will be a route for researchers to find some answers to the problems we face.