Braiden (9) asks “What makes a diamond so hard?.

Braiden, my question (before I turn you over to my team) is how do you detect ‘hardness’? Can you create an order of hardness with some common materials?
Lets say:

wood (balsa)
wood (oak)
plastic object
bath sponge
china(cups and saucers)
concrete pathway
metal fork
rock (sandstone)
piece of coal
pencil rubber 
I think that would be an interesting experiment to carry out. You will have to make sure it is a fair test (science is all about fair tests …and questions …and hypotheses and experiment). How will you carry out the experiment? ( a hypothesis is an idea – “I think soft things will float, hard things will sink”)

Now over to my team.

Graphite has a layered structure with weak forces between the layers, This is a weaker structure than the close bonding of the diamond. The carbon atoms like the tetrahedral arrangement of the bonds with other carbon atoms. It is a very strong force.

Hope that makes some sense. If you have questions about the explanation please ask them. If you want to see my ‘hardness’ list go to Science Master Special-Hardness Results

Questions on electricity were asked by Gavin (10), Tegan (10) and Hayden (9)

Gavin asked “Why does the energy flow through the wires?”

Tegan asked “How does electricity work?”

Hayden asked “How do batteries springs and wires make a complete circuit?”

So how does this compare with a modern day battery. lets have a look and think about Gavins question.

Hayden and Tegan. In the circuit below the  energy flows around the circuit when the switch is closed. Why? What are wires made of? What is special? If the wires were plastic do you think electricity would be able to pass through it? Try and make your own circuits with different materials.

Electricity is linked to the passage of negatively charged electrons. These were very comfortable in the battery until it was connected to a circuit (a circuit is a continuous pathway) and the switch was closed. The circuit gave the electrons (negatively charged) a passage to the positively charged end of the battery. Electricity (electrons) flowed and accompanying the electrons was energy. Look at the Science Master Special on Energy and why not try the Circuit Quiz.


Do not play with mains electricity. It is very dangerous and could kill you.

Lexi (9) and Jaeda (9) and Cadence(8) asked a question on “Minerals”

Lexi, a nice question, a lot of elements are found within the form of a mineral. I shall let my team introduce the answer to this question.

Jaeda. You asked a question on crystals and why are they so expensive. This is not  a science question however most crystals are minerals so this question is also addressed to you.

Cadence . You asked about talc, which is a mineral.

All minerals are found in rocks. It is thought that some are created by the magma (lava) from volcanoes while other were formed in the Earth’s mantle and have reached the surface through earthquake activity. The minerals created from volcanoes have smaller crystals (probably cooled faster), minerals created more slowly in the mantle consist of bigger crystals. All of the minerals are created by a chemical reaction.

A lot of minerals are mined, dug from underground shafts. A lot of minerals have the elements Silicon and  Oxygen in them.Talc is a mineral of the elements Magnesium, Silicon and Oxygen and is mainly found in Japan and the United States.

Have fun and watch this video on minerals.

Thank you Lexi, Jaeda and Cadence. If you want to comment on this post please feel free to do so in the Reply box below. Or why not ask another question.

Could the Earth’s core be hotter than the Sun? asks Brooke (9)

Brooke. When earthquakes occur ( For how they occur see this question) you get a seismic wave travelling outwards from where it occurred. Imagine an explosion, a rock cracking a noise bigger than anything  you have experienced.  It would create the biggest sound ever, shake the ground more than it has ever been shaken and send a signal to the rest of the Earth that the earthquake had happened. It is this seismic wave of spreading energy that has helped scientists discover the structure of the inner Earth. The waves spreads out in all directions and some of them pass through the centre of the Earth. If you look at the waves on the other side of the Earth you can examine them and find out what they have travelled through.

It is now thought that the temperature of the inner core is close to 7000 degrees K (Kelvin). It is however not a liquid , because of the pressure of all the stuff on top of it. It is therefore a solid iron core at about 7000 degrees K…which is close to the outer temperature of the Sun.

(0 degrees K=273 degrees Centigrade so 100 degrees Centigrade = 373 degrees K )

William (9), Erika (10) and Alissa (10) asked some questions on fossil fuels

Erika asked “Why are fossil fuels so expensive?”

Alissa asked “How were fossil fuels found?”

William asked “how is oil made?”

I asked my friends to to talk about this however firstly I would like to talk about what makes a good science question.

A science question is a question that may lead to observations, an idea and help us in answering (or figuring out) the reason for some observation and the question.

Erika’s question is a good economics question.

Miners (those who look for oil and coal) have a variety of clever tools to help them find the fossil fuel. For example they can use ‘sniffers’. The¬† sniffers can detect small amounts of oil vapour which might find their way out of the rocks that are hiding the oil. They also use seismic detection methods. Seismic waves were used to investigate the Earths core however the oil explorers do not use earthquakes to create the seismic wave – they use special guns or explosives. The shock waves (seismic waves) travel through the rock and at some point they are reflected back and return to the surface. The waves are recorded and examined and they tell the explorer what type of material (rock, water, oil, coal) they have traveled through.

So the question from William has led to further observations and thoughts which lead me to another question……If I left my garden rubbish for a year would it turn into coal? If not why?

Edited 20/10/17 – image changed, link added and seismic waves discussed

Some questions on Gold from Chantelle (7), Shelby(9) and Mary(9)

Chantelle asked “Why is gold so hard to find?”

Shelby asked “Why is gold so heavy and hard to pick up ?”

Mary asked “Why is gold so expensive?”

Chantelle, Shelby and Mary some great questions , thank you. But are they science questions? Lets look at what a science question is.

A science question is a question that may lead to an idea and help us in answering (or figuring out) the reason for some observation.

For example ‘Why is gold so heavy?” …so firstly let us look at what gold is. Gold is a solid –¬† Is it a rock? Is it wood? Is it plastic? Is it a metal? ……it seems to fit into the group called metals (it’s cold to the touch, it’s solid, it can be scratched, it’s shiny, it’s heavy) it’s a metal. So Shelby’s second question is a good science question.

Is it heavier than other metals?¬† It doesn’t seem to be heavier than other metals but how do I test this?¬† Fair tests are important in science investigations. Being fair I compared my gold with with metals of comparable size? It is heavier, why? Maybe the bits which make up the gold are heavier than the bits that make up other metals?

Chantelle. I think gold is quite easy to find compared to other metals. Lots of other metals, iron, silver, copper and aluminium exist as minerals  so they are quite difficult to find. What is a mineral? Look at the following page.

Science Master


Kelly (9) asks “Why when we have been in water for too long, does our fingers and other parts of our body become soggy and wrinkly?”

Thanks team, a good start. The water soaks into the dead skin. There is lots of dead skin on our hands and feet. There are parts of our bodies which have very little dead skin so you will find that the wrinkles do not appear there. It was thought that the soaked up water caused the skin to swell and get puffy and the wrinkles were formed.


It is now thought by some that the wrinkling is a nervous reaction to the water attack on the body and that the wrinkled skin is a counter reaction to the skin becoming slippery because of the water intake (wrinkles help you hold things). What do you think?

Maybe you could record your thoughts in the Leave a reply box


Elizabeth (9) asked “How doesn’t stainless steel stain?”

Elizabeth I would like you try an experiment. Gather together some different nails. If you can, find a stainless steel nail, steel nail, iron nail and as many different nails that you can. Try and get two of each. Find two jam jars and put one set of clean nails in one jar and the other set of clean nails into the other jar. Why do I suggest cleaning the nails?

Fill the first jar with tap water and the second with water that has been boiled and cooled. Cover both with cling film and leave for about 7 days. What happens ?????

Relook at what you did at the start. What did  you see in the tap water that you added? How did this compare to the boiled water? What did you see when you boiled the water?

Most of the stains on metals are caused by interactions with water and oxygen.

When steel¬†and iron are attacked on their surface by the oxygen from the water you get ¬†things called oxides created as the oxygen (a very reactive gas) reacts with the metals surface. For most metals the¬†compound (oxide) that is formed is fairly ‘soft’ and is washed away creating new sites for oxygen attack. With stainless steel it is the chromium in the stainless steel that reacts with the oxygen creating an invisible layer of Chromium Oxide and this is such a hard substance that no other substance can stain the steel.

If you rub the stainless steel implement hard with a scraper you might get rid of the strong oxide and create a stain by attacking the surface of the steel with another substance. Try it (with permission).

Elizabeth and others, quite a detailed answer. If you want to ask further questions please ask.

Elizabeth (9) asked “If you picked up a shell from the beach and put it close to your ear why does it have the sound of waves?”


Elizabeth, I think we need to do some experiments, firstly did you know that sound can be reflected? Sound can be reflected like light, and like light the surface it bounces off can affect the bounce. Try reflecting sound using a mirror (preferably plastic). You could use a loud ticking clock as a sound source. You then use your ears to detect the reflection. Now cover the mirror with some paper see how it affects the reflection. You might have some difficulty in making the experiment ‘fair’ but never mind (a sound detector would help make it fairer).

Now instead of a shell, place (carefully) a cup over your ear and listen. Replace the cup with a closed cardboard tube and listen. Do you hear anything? You might hear a low quiet whistling sound. Try making the tube shorter/longer and see how it affects the sound.

How was what you heard different from what you heard when you used the shell? What is the difference between the surface of the cup and cardboard tube and the shell surface?

My thoughts are that we are living in a ‘sound’ environment. Putting the cup over our ear cuts out most of the sound but not all of it. We call that an ambient sound. This sound manages to enter our cup and it is bounced around in the cup, but inside a shell the bouncing is slightly different.

Let me know what you think by filling in the Reply box below and post your comment or ask another Question . Anybody can do this.