“I have a question about Hermann’s tortoises” says Christopher (10)

Many thanks team. The Western Hermann’s tortoise has evolved in the warmer parts of Europe while the Eastern Hermann’s tortoise has evolved in the colder parts of Europe where the ice age lasted longer. The Eastern tortoise is bigger than the Western one and it has been determined that it probably evolved faster than the Western tortoise. They can be distinguished by their carapace and plastron patterns. The images below are from Chris Leone
The Plastron

The Carapace

Maybe, Christopher you could tell me how long tortoises live? All you need to do is tell me in the Reply box below.?

Changes to title, images  and added information on tortoises (21/11/17)

Caroline (10) asks “Will the world ever end?”

Thanks team. It is thought that in 4.5 billion years time the dying Sun, then a Red Dwarf will expand as it runs out of energy. The expansion will reach our worlds orbit so the planet Earth will be destroyed.

Obviously before then the Earth might be hit by asteroids or some other catastrophic event so although the planet might survive, life upon it might be destroyed.

Below is a short animation of the Sun’s expansion at the end of it’s life.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“How did evolution happen?” asks Parm (10)

 

Parm, it’s all due to some wonderful stuff called DNA however the beginning of life is at the moment attributed to  a simpler chemical called RNA. Somehow 4.5 billion years ago, in a hot chemical quagmire a collection of complex chemical structure was formed which was living, it could reproduce itself. It is thought that this microscopic entity was quite close to the structure of present day bacterias although, it’s make up was completely different. For example it didn’t breathe Oxygen, it is thought that it might have breathed a chemical called Ammonia and it expelled Oxygen. It also, in its structure contained a crude DNA structure.

From this humble beginning all life on Earth evolved dictated by changes in the  DNA molecules that were part of their structure. Plants, Insects, Bacteria, Animals, Fungi, Algae,  all life contains their own DNA molecules which dictate their continued existence.

So for Jeremey, our snail there has been, for some reason, a small change in her/his DNA. The spiral is wrong. Maybe it might be wrong but it might help Jeremy eat a plant that he/she couldn’t eat before and therefore survive and breed more snails like him/her.

Over the millions of years that life has existed on our Earth, now and then, new life , created by old life, experiences a slight change in the DNA, and that means that the new life is slightly different from the life of its parents (plants, animals, fungi ….). If the new life survives, that life will create more new life in it’s form, evolution has taken place.

Hope this makes sense Parm. Any thoughts? Write them in the ‘Leave a Reply’ box.

Questions on electricity were asked by Gavin (10), Tegan (10) and Hayden (9)

Gavin asked “Why does the energy flow through the wires?”

Tegan asked “How does electricity work?”

Hayden asked “How do batteries springs and wires make a complete circuit?”

So how does this compare with a modern day battery. lets have a look and think about Gavins question.

Hayden and Tegan. In the circuit below the  energy flows around the circuit when the switch is closed. Why? What are wires made of? What is special? If the wires were plastic do you think electricity would be able to pass through it? Try and make your own circuits with different materials.

Electricity is linked to the passage of negatively charged electrons. These were very comfortable in the battery until it was connected to a circuit (a circuit is a continuous pathway) and the switch was closed. The circuit gave the electrons (negatively charged) a passage to the positively charged end of the battery. Electricity (electrons) flowed and accompanying the electrons was energy. Look at the Science Master Special on Energy and why not try the Circuit Quiz.

 

Do not play with mains electricity. It is very dangerous and could kill you.

Tegan (10) asks “How does gravity work?”

Tegan, a very interesting question. This question was asked some time ago and this is what my team said.

In the 17th Century Newton and another scientist called Hooke did some great observations and experiments on falling objects and proposed that gravity was an attraction between any two masses AND the attraction was dependant on the size of the masses involved.

For example you are attracted by the Earth and the Earth is attracted by you BUT your attraction is so much smaller than that of the Earth it does not affect the motion of the Earth. The attraction between you and the Earth is also dependant upon how far away you are from the Earth. The Moon is attracted by the Earth and the Earth is attracted by the Moon. They are both big bodies so gravity does affect the way they move with respect to each other and this dictates how the Moon orbits the Earth.

Some scientists including Einstein have put forward ideas on how gravity operates but even these are being challenged. There a lots of things which are still unanswered. The questions just have to be asked. Thank you for asking it.

Brandon S (10) asked “What kinds of alligators are there?

Nice question Brandon. Alligators and Crocodiles belong to the same family called the Crocodilians.

In a question from Kaia my team introduced the idea of ‘species’ and  said that, for example, there are 20,000 species of butterfly which means there are 20,000 different kinds of butterfly. There are however only two different types (species) of alligator – the American Alligator and the Chinese Alligator. Like butterflies they are almost identical the only difference with the alligators is their size.

There is a lot of work that has gone on by scientists to catalogue animals/insects/plants and other living things. For example you are in the family Sapiens and the Species Homo.

Brandon a question for you. Can you spot the differences  between a crocodile and an alligator?  They are in the same family. Try and let me know.

Thank you for your question.

William (9), Erika (10) and Alissa (10) asked some questions on fossil fuels

Erika asked “Why are fossil fuels so expensive?”

Alissa asked “How were fossil fuels found?”

William asked “how is oil made?”

I asked my friends to to talk about this however firstly I would like to talk about what makes a good science question.

science question is a question that may lead to observations, an idea and help us in answering (or figuring out) the reason for some observation and the question.

Erika’s question is a good economics question.

Miners (those who look for oil and coal) have a variety of clever tools to help them find the fossil fuel. For example they can use ‘sniffers’. The  sniffers can detect small amounts of oil vapour which might find their way out of the rocks that are hiding the oil. They also use seismic detection methods. Seismic waves were used to investigate the Earths core however the oil explorers do not use earthquakes to create the seismic wave – they use special guns or explosives. The shock waves (seismic waves) travel through the rock and at some point they are reflected back and return to the surface. The waves are recorded and examined and they tell the explorer what type of material (rock, water, oil, coal) they have traveled through.

So the question from William has led to further observations and thoughts which lead me to another question……If I left my garden rubbish for a year would it turn into coal? If not why?

Edited 20/10/17 – image changed, link added and seismic waves discussed

Laura G (10) asked “Is it possible to collect condensation to water a garden?”

Laura, have you ever on a warm day noticed faint water droppings on leaves of some of your plants. Where has this water come from? It might have come from the leaf itself or alternatively it might have come from the atmosphere. The atmosphere/air around us can hold an immense amount of water in its vapour form. For example a parcel of 1 cubic meter of air at 30 degrees centigrade could contain 28g ( or 28 cc) of water. There is therefore a good chance that those drips on the leaf came from the atmosphere.

The fog fence provides a surface that is colder* than the air around it and therefore a place where water vapour can condense and the water collected. The water can then be used for irrigation of plant life AND the plant life itself generates it’s own water vapour so it is possible to use a fog fence , in a desert like area to collect water, feed it to plants and begin the process of creating a self sustaining green environment.

I am happy for suggested revisions to the above arguments.

*Sorry Laura,I have given you a completely wrong bit of information. It is very unlikely that the fence would be at a different temperature from the air around us. So how does it aid condensation?  It’s made of metal. What do you feel when you touch a metal object that has been lying around on your table . It feels cold. Why? It should be at the same temperature as the rest of the objects on the table. It feels cold because metal is a good conductor of heat and as your fingers are quite warm it conducts the heat away from them and they feel cold. Maybe the metal in the fence is conducting heat away from the water vapour and because it loses heat it changes from the vapour form to the liquid form …..condensation.

Para added 15/10/17

Indianna (10) asked “If all the ice melts in Antarctica will we all drown?”

I agree. It has been calculated that the sea level would rise by about 260 ft or 70 m. This would mean cities like London and Paris would disappear BUT there still would be a lot of land. We would not all drown however life might be a bit difficult because of the crowding.

If you would like to make a comment on this answer please make it in the Reply box or ask another question. Thanks for the question Indianna.