Updated 4/11/17 – Image changed, text added.
Updated 4/11/17 – Image changed, text added.
The Hydra are a group of invertebrates (animals that do not have backbones) that look like tiny tubes with tentacles protruding off one end. They grow only about 0.4 inches (10 millimeters) long and eat even tinier aquatic animals AND they seem to be immortal, they can live forever without aging.
So why can’t we? There are several reasons. One of them is the inability of our cells to continually divide. The cells of bacteria seem to be able to divide, and form two daughter cells endlessly. Our cells only seem to be able to divide about 60 times …. so after that time the part of the body that the cells support begins to degenerate (die).
The cell dividing and subsequent regenerating is controlled by our DNA. It tells the body what to do. Over the years our DNA becomes damaged by a variety of things and the instructions for regeneration are lost.
However the hydra survives so maybe that will be a route for researchers to find some answers to the problems we face.
Thanks team.There has already been a mention of kaolinite in a question on minerals, see this site. My team are correct, the difference between ordinary clay pots and porcelain pots is the temperature at which the clay is ‘fired’.
The ‘firing’ process is linked to the temperature of the kiln.
So a porcelain pot is a pot heated up to much higher temperature than that of other pots. This causes the clay to form a new mineral called Mullite.
For more ‘hardness’ information you can go to this Science Master Special.
Updated 15/01/18 Experiment added.
More and more places are using thermal paper as a form of receipt paper for customers. With time the information fades. How can one scientifically go about recovering information which may have faded from thermal paper.
Keith, many thanks for the question. I never realised that thermal(heat sensitive) paper was used in so many places and that it is also the basis on which the polaroid camera worked.
Thermal paper is made using a collection of dyes which exist as colourless crystals that become coloured when they interact with an acid.
For those who enjoy their chemistry you might have come across adding a dye called phenolphthalein to an acid solution. The dye changes from colourless to a deep purple.
The applied heat (from the cash register machine) melts a layer in the paper which contains acid crystals. The liquid acid then interacts with the layer below it which contains a colourless crystalline dye which changes colour as the acid interacts with it. The print then shows. The acid quickly becomes crystalline again.
Over time the print does begin to disappear.
A little investigation.
Obtain an old till receipt which your adults do not want to save. Put it onto an ironing board and with a hot (care) iron, iron it.
To make it more scientific predict what you think might happen before you carry out the experiment. Any ideas, if so you have a hypothesis. Now find a very old (fading) receipt and using a hair drier blow warm air onto the BACK of the receipt. Again predict.
I think I’ll stop there. Many thanks for the question Keith. Please comment or ask another question.
William, I asked my team to look at your question . I don’t think there is any need to worry 🙂 You might also like to look at this questions which is similar to yours.
List of materials
china(cups and saucers)
piece of coal
My hypothesis (idea ) is that the hardest material will be the metal. I have decided to test this by using a metal nail and trying to scratch all the samples on the list. The ease of the scratch will be linked to the softness of the material. These are the results of my test from softest to hardest.
piece of coal
china (could not scratch)
glass (could not scratch)
Like to add some more examples …let me know by using the Reply Box.
Braiden, my question (before I turn you over to my team) is how do you detect ‘hardness’? Can you create an order of hardness with some common materials?
Now over to my team.
Graphite has a layered structure with weak forces between the layers, This is a weaker structure than the close bonding of the diamond. The carbon atoms like the tetrahedral arrangement of the bonds with other carbon atoms. It is a very strong force.
Hope that makes some sense. If you have questions about the explanation please ask them. If you want to see my ‘hardness’ list go to Science Master Special-Hardness Results
Updated 15/1/2018 Experiment added.
Parm, it’s all due to some wonderful stuff called DNA however the beginning of life is at the moment attributed to a simpler chemical called RNA. Somehow 4.5 billion years ago, in a hot chemical quagmire a collection of complex chemical structure was formed which was living, it could reproduce itself. It is thought that this microscopic entity was quite close to the structure of present day bacterias although, it’s make up was completely different. For example it didn’t breathe Oxygen, it is thought that it might have breathed a chemical called Ammonia and it expelled Oxygen. It also, in its structure contained a crude DNA structure.
From this humble beginning all life on Earth evolved dictated by changes in the DNA molecules that were part of their structure. Plants, Insects, Bacteria, Animals, Fungi, Algae, all life contains their own DNA molecules which dictate their continued existence.
So for Jeremey, our snail there has been, for some reason, a small change in her/his DNA. The spiral is wrong. Maybe it might be wrong but it might help Jeremy eat a plant that he/she couldn’t eat before and therefore survive and breed more snails like him/her.
Over the millions of years that life has existed on our Earth, now and then, new life , created by old life, experiences a slight change in the DNA, and that means that the new life is slightly different from the life of its parents (plants, animals, fungi ….). If the new life survives, that life will create more new life in it’s form, evolution has taken place.
Hope this makes sense Parm. Any thoughts? Write them in the ‘Leave a Reply’ box.
Gavin asked “Why does the energy flow through the wires?”
Tegan asked “How does electricity work?”
Hayden asked “How do batteries springs and wires make a complete circuit?”
So how does this compare with a modern day battery. lets have a look and think about Gavins question.
Hayden and Tegan. In the circuit below the energy flows around the circuit when the switch is closed. Why? What are wires made of? What is special? If the wires were plastic do you think electricity would be able to pass through it? Try and make your own circuits with different materials.
Electricity is linked to the passage of negatively charged electrons. These were very comfortable in the battery until it was connected to a circuit (a circuit is a continuous pathway) and the switch was closed. The circuit gave the electrons (negatively charged) a passage to the positively charged end of the battery. Electricity (electrons) flowed and accompanying the electrons was energy. Look at the Science Master Special on Energy and why not try the Circuit Quiz.
Do not play with mains electricity. It is very dangerous and could kill you.