Thanks for that information team. It does illustrate the relationship between elements and compounds and the way in which they work together. To understand this a little more you will have to know more about the structure of the atoms which make up the elements. All of the atoms of the 118 elements have a different number of protons in their nucleus and this dictates the way in which they behave in the formation of compound.
Below is a drawing of an atom of the element Lithium with the electrons, protons and neutrons.
I hope this gives you some answers to your question. If not please comment or ask another question.
PS You and your friends might be interested in the crossword puzzle background. Its all about atoms, elements and compounds. You can download the crossword and the answers from the link below.
(Anyone reading this post who wants to ask a question or make a comment please feel free to do so)