Jessica. I have asked my team to answer the information based questions. I will try to help you with the other questions.
Jessica asked about Dwarf planets, the temperature of the Sun, The Earth’s layers and the size of Jupiter. Here are the comments from my team.
I was interested in your question about Venus having an opposite spin to that of Earth. Earth has (if you are above the North Pole) a Counter (Anti) Clockwise spin while Venus (if you are above Venus’s North Pole)has a Clockwise spin. Most of the other planets spin in the same direction as the Earth. Here is a little experiment…..
Pick up a pencil and holding it upright begin turning it in a clockwise direction, now still turning the pencil, turn the pencil through 180 degrees. Which way is the pencil now rotating, clockwise or anti clockwise? It is thought that close to the beginning of the Solar System a close encounter with another large object caused the axis of Venus to move through 180 degrees. Is that a theory or a hypothesis?
To your question about the position of Mercury – I have no idea why it is the nearest planet to the Sun. At the beginning of the Solar System you have the Sun surrounded by orbiting space dust. This dust slowly collects together and the planets begin to be formed. The closest ring of dust to the Sun formed the closest planet (Which we call Mercury).