This is a role play which I think can give you younger learner some ideas about the connections between solids liquids and gases. Try it with some friends.
There are only two roles: (1) The Director (2) The actors or water particles (molecules).
What is needed: (1) Space to act out the role play (2) Temperature prompts for the Director [-15oC, -10oC, 0oC, 10oC, 30oC, 50oC, 80oC, 100oC]
To start the temperature is -15oC. The water particles are stationary (frozen) connected to each other by bonds (Hydrogen bonds-see below). The actors depict this by holding hands with the the other actors.
At -10oC the crystalline bonding is still holding BUT the molecules are slowly vibrating but still remaining in the same place.
As the temperature approaches 0oC things start to happen. The water molecules begin to move, slowly. The actors are not holding hands but have some contact with each other. The hydrogen bonding is still there.They can move from one molecule to another but must never lose contact …moving slowly. They are now liquid water molecules.
The temperature slowly increases and as it increases the water molecules are getting more and more energy from the heat source and begin to move faster. They are moving faster BUT still in contact with other water molecules. At 30oC one or two of the water molecules break away and then come back again.
At 50oC one water molecule escapes completely and doesn’t return. The rest are moving even faster.
At 80oC several molecules break away and maybe one returns. At 100oC the whole group begins to break up and move into the room they are now water vapour molecules and not connected at all to each other.
The water molecule is an interesting particle. It consist of a central Oxygen atom and two Hydrogen atoms connected to it. The structure gives the Oxygen atom a small negative electrical charge, the Hydrogen atoms have a small positive charge. This means that the Hydrogen atom of one molecule of water can be attracted to the negatively charged Oxygen atom of another water molecule. This is your Hydrogen Bond.